This thrust appeared to be successful. found that 9,000 war criminals escaped to South America, including Croats, Ukrainians, Russians and other western Europeans who aided the Nazi war machine. Mexico entered World War II in response to German attacks on Mexican ships. Profiles by Country or Area, "Ten percent of Venezuelans are taking steps for emigrating", https://www.giga-hamburg.de/sites/default/files/md_pdf/emigrant-policies-LatinAmerica-and-theCaribbean.pdf%7Caccessdate=May, "Latin America Is the Murder Capital of the World", "A Year of Violence Sees Brazil's Murder Rate Hit Record High", "Intentional homicides (per 100,000 people)", "Map: Here are countries with the world's highest murder rates", "Crime Hinders Development, Democracy in Latin America, U.S. Says – US Department of State", "Understanding the uneven distribution of the incidence of homicide in Latin America", "The Politics of Abortion in Latin America", "Abortion Rights in Latin America: A Tale of Varying Woes", https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-41005517, "HIV and AIDS in Latin America the Caribbean regional overview", "The Changing Face of HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean", "Miles to go—closing gaps, breaking barriers, righting injustices", "HIV prevention among transgender women in Latin America: implementation, gaps and challenges", "GDP 2019, some Latin American countries", "On the Human Capital of Inca Indios before and after the Spanish Conquest. Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in 1978–79 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the 1980s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the subject of fierce international debate. The basic industries (steel, etc.) Once the German submarines attacked unarmed Brazilian trading ships, President Vargas met with the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt to discuss how they could retaliate. The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs, Maya, and Inca. [257] Considering all of Latin America, the 10 busiest airports in 2017 were: Mexico City (Mexico), São Paulo-Guarulhos (Brazil), Bogotá (Colombia), Cancún (Mexico), São Paulo-Congonhas (Brazil), Santiago ( Chile), Lima (Peru), Brasilia (Brazil), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Tocumen (Panama). Latin America is a term attributed to the region that covers all countries in the Americas that speak a romantic language or a language derived from Latin such as French, Spanish or Portuguese.The term became widely used due to Napoleon the 3rd, in the late 1800s, to justify his engrossment in Mexican politics. Both rejected also European imperialism, claiming that the return of European countries to non-democratic forms of government was another danger for Latin American countries, and used the same word to describe the state of European politics at the time: "despotism." Since 1917, Puerto Ricans have been granted automatic U.S. citizenship, yet they don't have the right to vote in presidential elections. [76] Mexico was the only Latin-American country to send troops to the Asia-Pacific theatre of the war. The terms mestizo or mameluco, mulatto, the general term castas, and dozens of subcategories of racial identity frankly recognized the outcomes of interracial sexual activity in Latin America and established a continuum of race rather than the unrealistic absolute categories of white, black, or Indian as used in the United States. [142], According to the detailed Pew multi-country survey in 2014, 69% of the Latin American population is Catholic and 19% is Protestant. In Latin American intellectual history, modernism is a term that can be usefully and accurately applied to at least two distinct intellectual movements: a clearly definable modernist movement in Spanish-speaking Latin America (1880–1920) and another in Brazil (1922–45). [42], On April 7, 1831, worn down by years of administrative turmoil and political dissensions with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt of republican secession,[43] as well as unreconciled with the way that absolutists in Portugal had given to the succession of King John VI, Pedro I went to Portugal to reclaim his daughter's crown, abdicating the Brazilian throne in favor of his five-year-old son and heir (who thus became the Empire's second monarch, with the regnal title of Dom Pedro II). In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America. Brazilian opera soprano Bidu Sayão, one of Brazil's most famous musicians, was a leading artist of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City from 1937 to 1952. Of Spain's two remaining colonies, Cuba gained its independence in 1898, at which time Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the U.S. in the Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War. Latino definition is - a native or inhabitant of Latin America. The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917. The port city of Veracruz, Mexico and France's desire to construct a new canal were of particular interest. Its full use still depends on the construction of locks, major dredging works and, mainly, of ports that allow intermodal integration. It is defined by others as a region where a Romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, or French) predominates, or as the countries with a history of Iberian (Spanish and Portuguese) colonialism. During the colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz wrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. 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