Therefore the model is incomplete as an explanation which is a major weakness. Therefore the possibility of demand characteristics is very possible with such laboratory studies. No Payment details required and completely Risk Free. Recall the event in different orders such as in reverse order or at different stages. Recall was found to be poorest when List B was a list of synonyms of List A (12% recall) supporting the case for confusion to occur between the two memories as interference theory states. For example, trying to recall information sober when it was learnt drunk (and vice versa). The multi-store memory model can be argued to be oversimplifying memory structures and processes. Two types of interference are proposed to occur: proactive interference and retroactive interference. Occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Much of the evidence for testing the different components such as the VSS and the PL have often relied on dual-task techniques where participants are required to carry out two simultaneous activities. However again the replicated studies tend to be within artificial settings which could be affecting results and lack external validity and wider generalisation to real-world situations which is again limited. Pet scans also support these findings with brain activation apparent in the left hemisphere when doing visual tasks and right hemisphere activity when doing spatial tasks which support the idea that the VSS is further subdivided into a separate visual cache and inner-scribe. They were asked to do this 8 times, on each trial they were told to stop after different amounts of time- 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds. Another major weakness for interference theory is it only explains forgetting when information is similar and can not explain why forgetting occurs in the majority of real-life situations. This is because the recollection of one small memory may act as a retrieval cue for other important memories. This is different from declarative memory stores as it does not rely on the hippocampus to function. Therefore studies that have tested for the WMM lack mundane realism. McDonald et al (1931) experimented with participants giving them lists of adjectives to remember (List A). This suggests there may be other components to the Central Executive which the Working Memory Model is unable to explain due to it being over-simplified in its theory. Degree of forgetting is greater when memories are similar, Effects of similarity McGeoch and McDonald. HM could not form episodic or semantic memories due to the destruction of his hippocampus and temporal lobes however he was able to form procedural memory through learning how to draw figures by looking at their reflection (mirror drawing). four techniques of the cognitive interview. Therefore this study may lack internal validity as it may be more of a measure on how leading questions affects one particular age group (students) rather than the wider population. A Level Psychology – Types of Memory. However, Miller also noticed that people can recall 5 words as well as 5 letters, they do this by chunking. These setups lack ecological validity and also mundane realism as the tasks are rarely indicative of what people would experience in real-life situations. Possible exam questions for eyewitness testimony and misleading information include: Deffenbacher reviewed 21 studies finding the stress-performance relationship followed an inverted U as proposed by the Yerkes-Dodson Curve. Made for my own benefit, so not all questions will help you out, but feel free to use. The fact that it is impossible to test for an item as having been encoded or not means we cannot fully test the encoding specificity principle. This model proposes that as physiological arousal increases beyond the moderate optimum level, unlike the Yerkes-Dodson curve where there is a steady decline, they observed a drastic drop in performance which they proposed is caused by increased mental anxiety and worry. The central executive has no storage capacity of its own and Baddeley realised the model required a general store to explain why some amnesia patients with no longterm recall could recall information immediately. A cues effectiveness depends on the number of items associated with it with fewer items leading to a more effective cue. Research evidence by Glanzer et al demonstrated support for short-term and long-term memory being different stores. The memory store for each of our five senses, such as vision (ichoic) and hearing (echoic). Procedural memory is a skill-based memory and focused on recalling how to do something i.e. Also, it is not fully understood how the link between working memory and longterm memory works and this is not fully explained either. (different people were given slightly different questions). When we refer to forgetting, we generally mean a persons inability to recall or recognise something that they had previously learned. Other research suggests age is also a mitigating factor which could be a confounding variable beyond simply anxiety and this needs to be considered also. Anderson (2000) believed interference did play a role in forgetting but it was difficult to understand exactly how much. Support for state-dependent failure comes from a study by Overton (1972). Procedural memories are usually learnt through repetition and practice. • Types of long-term memory: episodic, semantic, procedural. The episodic buffer has limited capacity and also maintains time-sequencing recording events as they happen and transferring this information into long-term memory. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Traumatic life events may be recalled better due to the strong emotional attachment they have and it is believed that episodic memory is what helps us distinguish between our imagination and real events. 24 participants ranging in age from 18-53 were given four stories about their childhood gathered from relatives. Similar to a labelling system on a filing system, the cues act as markers to aid recall and without these, the mind is unable to locate the correct memory. It is also involved in directing “attention” and resources towards particular tasks. The evidence supports the idea of short-term memory and long-term memory being separate types of memory and it has been verified through the use of PET scans and fMRI scans when participants have been doing separate tasks related to short-term memory and long-term. Topic 4: Approaches in Psychology. The working memory model replaced the idea of a unitary Short-term memory store (STM) and suggested a system involving multiple stores consisting of active processing and short-term storage of information. This means that the efficiency of eyewitness testimony depended on the level of stress/anxiety with low and high amounts of anxiety resulting in poorer recall while moderate levels of anxiety yielded the best and most optimum level of recall and performance. This may be explained due to highly motivated participants displaying demand characteristics that may not be indicative of real witnesses. AQA A Level Sociology Book One Including AS Level R. Webb, H. Westergaard. Also, such explanations are not able to explain why retrieval failure cannot be explained with cue dependent forgetting for activities such as riding a bike, suggesting retrieval failure as a theory for forgetting is oversimplified and incomplete. However, the use of students may have been a confounding variable in itself rather than leading questions as they are not representative of the range of ages in the normal population and therefore the sample lacks population validity also. Results found the words that implied a stronger collision resulted in greater average estimates of speeds from participants. Long-term memory may not be a single store either as Schachter et al proposed 4 different types of long-term memory stores. One critical question varied between conditions with one group asked how fast the vehicles were going when they “hit” each other while other groups had verbs implying different degree’s of a collision such as “bumped, smashed, contacted, collided”. Baddeley’s (1975) study did find supporting evidence for cue dependent learning and how context cues aided retrieval. Memory - AQA A Level Psychology Revision 1. A Level Psychology – Studies of Memory. This demonstrated the limited capacity of the visuospatial sketchpad but also how it differs from the Phonological loop which is responsible for auditory tasks. Forgetting increased after each interval however little forgetting occurred at the start. By ensuring adverts are spaced significantly far apart from the airing of rival brands or by repeating more on one day rather than over the weak with rival brands, this can help avoid dilution of adverts. They are ‘time stamped’ (you kno… The same was true vice versa too with better recall shown when the learning context remained the same as encoding. This study illustrated that in instances of real-life stressful situations recall may be accurate even months later. Therefore we cannot conclusively say the procedural memory store is fully understood with any detail to generalise such a theory. AQA A Level psychology past papers can be found on this dedicated page. The pre-frontal cortex of the brain is linked to the initial coding of episodic memories and consolidation and storage associated with the neocortex. This highlights clearly how post-event discussion can cause people to mistakenly recall incorrect information. swimming, reading or cycling and does not require conscious thought. The iconic register processes vision, the echoic register process sound and the haptic register process touch. by brittzackroyd Plays Quiz not verified by Sporcle . Semantic coding is mainly associated with the frontal and temporal lobes with an opinion on semantic long-term memory being mixed; some argue the hippocampus is involved while others believe several parts of the brain play a role. Including facts and our knowledge of what concepts mean. AQA A LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY - AS MEMORY. Report every detail regardless of how trivial it may seem. Clifford and Scott found that people who saw a film of a violent attack remembered less than people in a control group who saw a less stressful version. It is unclear whether those with greater working memory spans have achieved this either through more practice in some form but it highlights how interference theories cannot be fully generalised to everyone. Delays of 10 seconds or more before recall resulted in only a primacy effect with only long-term memory affected. Studies that have subsequently found stress/anxiety to aid recall were likely to have experienced the first increasing levels of stress in the Yerkes-Dodson curve while those suffering from poor recall may be due to them being within the second part with over-arousal resulting in poor recall performance. Images should act as retrieval cues. Criticisms of research into how anxiety affects eyewitness testimony point to the fact that studies have been conducted in laboratory settings and therefore lack ecological validity due to their controlled nature. Capacity for the CE is very limited and it receives information from the senses or from long-term memory. Return to original crime scene in their mind and imagine the environment. Participants learnt material either drunk or sober and found participants struggled with recall more when trying to retrieve the information in a state that is different from the time of encoding. This resource contains 9 essays covering the full topic of ‘Memory’ in the AQA Psychology A-Level (new spec). Memories that are episodic are usually based on events that occur in peoples lives however over time they move over to semantic memory as the event’s association diminishes and the memory becomes “knowledge” based. It suggested that that the STM has a short duration (18 seconds at most), Research on duration of LTM ( Bahrick et al). Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Why AQA Psychology? Can be in the form of a misleading question or a post event discussion, a question which, because of the way it is phrased, suggests a certain answer. Long term memory store of personal events. This highlights how short-term memory is not a single store as the MSM suggests. They found more interference occurred between two visual tasks compared to a visual and spatial task suggesting both were separate components with the visual cache dealing with colour and form and the inner scribe dealing with spatial relationships. Social Psychology – Conformity. This provides support for state-dependent failure as an explanation for forgetting. The theory that a degree of psychological arousal helps performance, but only to a point. Pickel conducted an experiment using scissors, a handgun, a wallet or a raw chicken, EWT accuracy was poorer in high unusualness conditions. Although ethical issues are raised due to the participants being deceived into thinking what they were watching was real; the findings suggest leading questions may have some impact in laboratory settings but in real life, other factors (such as arousal, stress, concentration or motivation) may mitigate for this and override their effects. Baddeley demonstrated the existence of the visuospatial sketchpad when participants were given the task of tracking a moving light with a pointer. Research found that students get 2x better exam results with Seneca - and it's FREE Whether you want to revise conformity and obedience or learn about attachment theory and memory, Seneca can be your personal tutor for revising Psychology. Interference theory argues forgetting occurs due to two memories competing and being affected by past memories or possible future learning. This suggests high levels of anxiety in situations do not always divert attention away from what is happening. This suggests that the weapon focus effect is due to unusualness rather than anxiety. Information received is raw and unprocessed and the sensory register has a large capacity however the duration of storage is milliseconds unless given focused attention in which case it will move to the short-term memory store. In this model, STM is an active processor (working memory) which the “Central Executive” (CE) “attends to and works on” either speech-based information received from the articulatory-phonological loop or visually coded information received from the Visuospatial sketchpad. You now only need to know about how factors such as misleading information and anxiety affect eyewitness testimony. The first question to ask yourself when revising for GCSE psychology is which exam board am I studying? Logie (1995) suggested the VSS could be further sub-divided into a visual cache (CV) which stores visual material on colour and form and an inner-scribe (IS) which deals with spatial relationships, rehearsal and the transfer of information from the visual cache to the central executive. What is psychology? Therefore episodic memory underpins semantic memory with episodic based experiences moving over to semantic memory over time. Forgetting across short-term memory or long-term memory has often been explained in terms of ‘trace decay’; the idea the memory code created in the brain to store information has disappeared. Also forgetting due to similarities doesn’t happen that often either suggesting it is only one part of a bigger explanation and over-simplified. This includes performance, physiological arousal and also cognitive anxiety too. Support for semantic and episodic memory being separate comes from Vicari et al (2007). Environmental context such as being at a particular place can trigger retrieval as can particular sights or sounds if they are experienced strongly enough during encoding. Those exposed to “smashed” gave the highest estimates (41mph) while “contacted” resulted in the lowest speed estimate (30mph), demonstrating how leading questions could influence memory recall. Science Quiz / GCSE Psychology memory AQA Random Science Quiz GCSE Psychology making sense of other peoples memory AQA. This would result in greater recall than being in a different room. Example Answer for Question 08 Paper 1: A Level Psychology, June 2017 (AQA) Exam technique advice Working Memory Model: Example Answer Video for A Level SAM 2, Paper 1, Q7 (4 Marks) This resource hasn't been reviewed. Shallice et al highlighted this with a case study of KF who suffered brain damage resulting in difficulty with verbal information in short-term memory but normal ability with visual information. Also with student participants age could be a confounding variable as research in other studies has found memory recall to be affected by this and therefore the study may lack internal validity and not be accurately measuring the effects of the cognitive interview completely but rather how one interview technique affects a certain age range of people. Understanding how interference works can offer advertisers real-world applications for marketing campaigns as they attempt to build brands. 4 conditions to learn and recall: -supporting evidence (godden and baddely + carter and cassaday), - you can learn something in one room and retrieve it in another room, context dependent cues arent that important in recall, The ability of people to remember the details of events, such as accidents and crimes, which they themselves have observed. For example, testing them for the material they learnt underwater while on land resulted in poorer retrieval than if they were tested while still underwater. Context-dependent failure may rely on external environmental retrieval cues being similar to when the information was encoded to aid recall, e.g. recall was tested by: An explanation of memory based on three separate memory stores, and how information is transferred between these stores. Episodic:The memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated. The problem is they lack external validity and realism due to the artificial setup and they are not tasks people would usually do in everyday life. The way an event is remembered can also be altered or contaminated by discussing events with others and/or being questioned repeatedly. This is a major limitation as interviewers may not always know what is factual or not as the cognitive interview does not guarantee the accuracy of information recalled. There is a huge body of work and research which supports retroactive and proactive interference occurring. 1 Identify one factor that has been shown to affect the accuracy of memory. ... Memory. Semantic memory may also relate to how certain objects work, their functions, appropriate behaviour in situations or abstract concepts such as language or mathematics. It is based on Tulvings beliefs that several retrieval paths exist to memory recall and information not accessible by one path may be available using varying methods of recall. Considering the millions spent on advertising this presents a big problem but also provides marketers with practical ways to overcome this. AQA A-level Psychology Exam Papers and Practice Questions 2017; Past Paper question Memory. Although interference has been proven to occur when trying to remember information, the theory does not offer any explanation as to what the cognitive processes are at work to cause this. Fazey & Hardy (1988) proposed Catastrophe theory which may better explain the conflicting findings of how anxiety affects EWT on a 3- dimensional scale. Did play a role in forgetting but it was beneficial for improving EWT some situations or try harder in due... Real-World applications for marketing campaigns as they attempt to build brands who discussed... 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